FUTURISM AND COLLAGE (1909-1915) Futurists integrated radical effects of the machine age and technological inventions. Their collages vigorously combined found materials into art of passionate rebellion, noise, energy, motion, and dynamism.
DADA AND COLLAGE (1915-1923) Reacting to the brutality of World War I, the most active collage artists in the early 20th-century were in the Dada movement. Dadaists ridiculed the culture of their time through deliberately absurd performances, poetry, and visual art.
RAY JOHNSON AND MOTICOS (1927-1995) In an interview for the inaugural issue of the Village Voice, Ray Johnson discussed what moticos were and what they weren't. "I've got a big pile of things at home which will make moticos. They're really collages - paste-ups of pictures and pieces of paperÉ but that sounds too much like what they really are, so I call them moticos. It's a good word because it's both singular and plural and you can pronounce it how you like." (Wilcock, 1955) Johnson's moticos, or collages, are exhibited more often in museums and galleries than his mail art because curators place the moticos in the category of fine art. In contrast, curators treat Johnson's mail art more as a long-term performance or avocation, rather than as individual art objects. This short history of collage brings us to the beginning of this research project and consideration of collage as a way to creatively use grounded theory methods to pull together diverse and changing sets of data.
HONORIAÕS RESEARCH AND COLLAGE (1999 Ð 2001) I use grounded theory as a method of data collage. Collage combines diverse components that the artist brings together. For a collage artist such as myself, grounded theory combines the creative attraction of collage with my academic training in observation, data collection, appreciation of tacit knowledge, data coding and analysis, and contributing to knowledge. I use grounded theory to build up a picture, or theory, from diverse meaningful fragments. The data fragments come from four general sources as pictured in the following diagram.